The overall objective of GREENCRANES was to demonstrate the feasibility of new technologies and alternative fuels (e.g. LNG) by running pilot projects in port container terminals (PCTs). These projects have demonstrated the potential for reducing the energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with these technologies in PCT operations. The technologies proposed in GREENCRANES are already mature as they have been implemented in other industrial sectors; however, the application of these technologies in ports represents an innovative approach relative to the existing technologies. The pilot projects carried out as part of GREENCRANES took place in the ports of Valencia (Spain), Livorno (Italy) and Koper (Slovenia).
In particular, in the Port of Valencia, GREENCRANES demonstrated the feasibility of using LNG rather than diesel to fuel the terminal tractors. Furthermore, GREENCRANES demonstrated the usefulness of real-time monitoring systems to control the energy consumption of PCTs by means of a control system installed in the Port of Koper. Lastly, GREENCRANES developed a pilot based on converting a reach stacker to use dual fuel technology.
The main results achieved by GREENCRANES are as follows:
- Detailed quantification of the energy consumption of PCTs according to the type of energy source used (electricity, fuel) and consumption point (quay cranes, yard cranes, horizontal transport vehicles, facilities, etc.).
- Detailed calculation of the carbon footprint generated in the PCTs involved in the project.
- Assessment of the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of alternative technological and operational options aimed at reducing both the energy consumption and GHG emissions of PCTs: use of LNG in the fleet of terminal tractors, running RTGs on electricity, the use of alternative fuels for reach stackers, the use of fuel storage systems, etc.
- Development of an energy-efficiency indicator system to be incorporated into the PCT balanced scorecard.
- Four pilot projects carried out in the ports of Valencia, Livorno and Koper, focused on the use of alternatives to traditional fuels as an energy source, as well as the implementation of energy measurement and management systems: